Never mind the bollocking, here’s the slang data

An unlikely swearword hit the headlines twice in recent days, thanks to its use on mainstream television from two prominent figures. In the first clip below, celebrity journalist Piers Morgan uses bollock as a transitive verb (meaning ‘scold, reprimand’) on the ITV chat show Good Morning Britain:

[The YouTube clip is gone, but you can see the footage on the Evening Standard website.]

The phrase ‘whether he’s praising them or bollocking them’ is in reference to letters Prince Charles wrote to his sons William and Harry and the difficulty they sometimes had in deciphering his handwriting.

Presenter Susanna Reid immediately told Morgan to ‘excuse your language’, and after expressing surprise (‘Can you not say that?!’) he quickly apologised to viewers. Bollock and its derivatives are milder than prototypical swearwords like fuck but much ruder than synonyms like reprimand, roast and reproach. After all, bollocks refers chiefly to testicles.

The other bollocking came from Prince William himself, who used it as a noun in a documentary on ITV – again in reference to the brothers showing each other their father’s letters ‘just in case it was a bollocking we didn’t know about’. A bollocking often collocates with give or get, depending on one’s point of view, but not in this case.

[This clip has also disappeared, but Prince William, helpfully, has used the word again, relating an anecdote in which the Queen ‘came over and gave us the most mighty bollocking’.]

Discounting a one-off 17thC use to mean slander, the noun bollocking meaning ‘a stern scolding’ entered written English in the 1940s. The OED cites Gerald Kersh’s military stories Clean, Bright and Slightly Oiled of 1946: ‘Reads some books and then gives ’em a ballocking in the papers’; while Green’s Dictionary of Slang has rhyming slang from Julian Maclaren-Ross’s Of Love and Hunger in 1947: ‘Gave me a god-awful rolluxing Monday.’

This was a few years after the verb’s debut, in Welsh poet Alun Lewis’s army tales Last Inspection: ‘He’d gone round bollucking them right and left.’ Bolluck is not usual, and over time the ba– spellings are losing ground: bollocks overtook ballocks in the 1960s; ballocking seems to have peaked during WWII. Bollock (v.) also had an earlier sense which the OED defines vividly as: ‘In a fight: to grab an opponent’s testicles forcefully. . . . Usually in collocation with bite and gouge.’ It is now mercifully rare.

The original bollock ‘testicle’, probably from ball < Indo-European root bhel- ‘to blow, swell’, was a venerable word in Old English that occurred even in surnames and place names and carried no connotations of vulgarity: only later did it gain its ribald flavour. As slang lexicographer Jonathon Green writes, in his excellent history Language! 500 Years of the Vulgar Tongue:

Abbot Aelfric’s Latin to Anglo-Saxon Glossary (c. 1000) translates podex as ars and testiculi as beallucas, the ‘ancestor’ of the modern bollocks. No one would pretend that the writer-theologian was an adept of the counter-language.

It even appears in Wycliffe’s Bible, in the Middle English form ballokes, in reference to castrated beasts:

Al beeste that outher with al to-brokun or crippid or kitt and taken awey the ballokes is, ȝe shulen not offre to the Lord.

Yet despite Piers Morgan’s surprise at the word’s unsuitability for morning television, many people consider bollocks positively offensive. Delete Expletives? (PDF), a report by the UK’s Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) in 2000, ranked it the eighth most severe swearword, down from sixth in 1998:

ASA delete expletives swear words ranked severity

Breaking it down further, the same report found that over half of participants (from a total of 1033) think bollocks is ‘severe’ and a quarter ‘very severe’. There’s a much larger discrepancy by gender than by age:

ASA delete expletives bollocks ranked severity by gender age

Chambers Slang Dictionary, by the same Jonathon Green, outlines the relatively recent fall from unmarked use (if not exactly grace) of ballocks:

11C but remained SE [Standard English] until late 18C; it appears in Bailey’s Universal Etymological English Dict. in all editions f. 1721–1800 but was not included in Samuel Johnson’s Dictionary, which drew heavily on Bailey’s word-list, in 1755; one must thus assume that the word was passing then from polite use; it was definitely slang by 1800 and appears as such in Grose (1788, 1796) though, oddly, in neither Grose (1785), Hotten nor F&H; thus Ballock Hall, 17C home of Adam & Lucy Loftus, and known for its unsavoury reputation; note single use as a term of affection in Urquhart, The Complete Works of Rabelais (1653): ‘I must grip thee, my ballock, till thy back crack with it’

Green also offers bollacking as a ‘coarse intensive’ in Irish use, bollicking as a ‘general intensifier’, e.g., bollicking awful, and a frankly amazing array of bollock-related usages and expressions, should your bookshelf be in want of such treasures. Here’s an example of the intensifying use:

Plural bollocks (ballocks, bollicks, bollox, bollix, etc.) has a variety of senses aside from its original testicles reference. It came to mean ‘nonsense, rubbish’ about a century ago – Orwell once bemoaned ‘all that bollux about libel’ in a letter – and this is now a very common and expressive usage, exemplified in a post by David Crystal last year. It’s also a near-antonym in the dog’s bollocks, equivalent to the bee’s knees or the cat’s pyjamas.

In some dialects, such as Irish English, bollocks can serve as a mild personal insult. James Joyce, in Ulysses, writes: ‘Who’s the old ballocks you were talking to?’, and it is used in emphatic idiomatic constructions like I will in my bollocks (= I will not) and Can I bollox (= I can’t). This versatility is well demonstrated in Terry O’Hagan’s post, and here:

Given the ASA’s findings above, you might expect bollocks and its variations to be largely the preserve of people who have bollocks, but in my own experience and from browsing the web its use doesn’t seem especially gender-skewed. Definite geographical patterns have been detected, though: Jack Grieve’s swear map of the US shows bollocks to be correlated with bloody and concentrated in western and northeastern states:

Jack Grieve swear map of USA - BLOODY BOLLOCKS CRAP PISS

Compared to bollocks, the bollocking we heard from Piers Morgan and Prince William is not nearly as common. It appears in neither my Macquarie Book of Slang from Australia (admittedly out-of-date: 1996) nor my Dictionary of American Slang by Robert Chapman (ditto: 1987). To find out where it’s used and how much, we need to search a nice big corpus.

GloWbE, which contains 1.9b words from 20 English-speaking countries, offers 155 hits for bollocking, distributed thus: 103 UK, 13 New Zealand, 12 Ireland, 11 Australia, 7 US, 2 South Africa, and 1 each in various other countries. That’s 90% in those first four, and 95.5% non-US use. Bollicking and bollacking have single-figure hits in GloWbE, restricted to the UK, Ireland, and NZ. The counts are too low to hang a definitive conclusion on, but they are strongly indicative of present distribution.

GloWbE corpus search for bollocking

As for how it’s used, the vast majority of GloWbE’s examples are the noun use; a few are verbs or intensifiers. Searching on Twitter gives a similar pattern. If you ignore all the current references to Prince William, you’ll see it’s often used in relation to parents, sports managers or other authority figures who are giving their charges a bollocking. And there I’ll leave it before I invite a bollocking for overdoing things.

malcolm tucker bollocking face


Bollocks was the UK-to-US word of the year 2012 on Lynne Murphy’s blog separated by a common language. Commenting on the ASA severity list, she writes: ‘Most British people I know would contest that ordering of offensiveness, with bollocks feeling pretty mild these days. But still, it’s not something that would easily make its way onto a billboard.’

40 thoughts on “Never mind the bollocking, here’s the slang data

  1. richardsmyth January 6, 2016 / 8:41 pm

    Lovely piece. I think linguistic innovator Roy Keane deserves a mention here, for in 2002 telling the then-Ireland manager Mick McCarthy: “You can stick it [the World Cup] up your bollocks.” I’ve never heard that phrase before or since. Is it used at all in Irish English?


    • Stan Carey January 7, 2016 / 8:58 am

      Thanks, Richard. Stick it up your bollocks is used (as are variations, e.g. with shove), often in reference to Keane. But that incident probably helped it spread, and if it lasts it might start to lose the specific associations. I should keep a list of anatomically improbable swears and insults.


  2. xiani January 6, 2016 / 9:06 pm

    “Is it used at all in Irish English”

    Is it ever. Judging by when I have a few drinks with my Irish friends, bollocks (pronounced ‘bollix’) is about general-purpose as ‘fuck’, possibly more so.

    “Ah, yer bollix” can mean just about anything, it’s basically a random exclamation.

    Not to mention the other English usage – after a few more drinks, one tends to get “completely bollocksed”, which is the same as fucked-up, or wasted.


    • Stan Carey January 7, 2016 / 9:02 am

      I think Richard was asking about Stick it up your bollocks, not bollocks more generally. The ‘wrecked’ sense of the word is included in Terry’s post, albeit more wrecked tired than wrecked drunk.


  3. John Cowan January 6, 2016 / 9:11 pm

    I point once again to AmE bollix. ‘throw into confusion, botch, bungle, screw up’ as a disguised version of ballocks, so much so that it is not even vulgar, never mind obscene.


    • Stan Carey January 7, 2016 / 9:08 am

      I remember the surprise I felt at seeing it in Garner’s 1998 Modern American Usage, when he writes (unfairly, IMO) that British writers have ‘utterly bollixed the distinction between restrictive and nonrestrictive relative pronouns’.

      There’s so much bollocking ground to cover with this word that I omitted a lot. No doubt we’ll return to it sooner or later.


    • xiani January 6, 2016 / 10:05 pm

      You don’t need “dogs” any more.

      Simply pre-pending “the” turns bollocks from a bad thing (I had a bollocks day at work) to an excellent thing (that last pint was the bollocks).


  4. Martyn Cornell January 7, 2016 / 1:15 am

    In Irish English, of course, ‘bollix’ is singular, as in the joke: “What’s nine inches long and hangs from a bollix? Daniel O’Donnell’s tie …”

    Liked by 1 person

    • Stan Carey January 7, 2016 / 9:15 am

      Ah, I’d forgotten that joke. Bit harsh on Daniel. To be clear, I would say Irish English bollix is both singular and plural.


      • greenandmusty January 7, 2016 / 11:50 am

        When used of people,
        A is a bollix, but
        A and B are a right pair of bollixes.

        The -ix spelling and pronunciation are particularly associated with “little” for a mean or devious person on HibE.


      • Stan Carey January 7, 2016 / 6:59 pm

        Yes to all that. Worth noting too that the word can be used among friends, like most insults in Ireland.


    • John Cowan January 7, 2016 / 3:22 pm

      I first read this as “Daniel O’Connell”.


  5. phil795 January 7, 2016 / 4:34 am

    This is not only one of the more entertaining and enlightening articles I have read of late, the whole damn column is a blast.


    • Stan Carey January 7, 2016 / 9:18 am

      Thanks very much, Phil. There’s lots of good reading in the archives, if you have the time and inclination.


  6. Kate January 7, 2016 / 5:19 am

    No bollocking in my Macquarie Dictionary but there is a bollocks (rubbish, nonsense – “what a load of …”) which is how most Australians would use it and the delightful but much less common bollocky, meaning naked (“he’s out there in the bollocky”).

    We’d know what getting a bollocking means but quite frankly we couldn’t be bollocksed with the likes of Piers Morgan.


    • Stan Carey January 7, 2016 / 9:30 am

      The ‘rubbish, nonsense’ bollocks is the one I would use most often; its plosive onset somehow helps deliver the desired degree of scorn. Chambers Slang Dictionary dates Australian bollocky ‘naked’ to the 1930s and mentions a few variations, such as the memorable bollocky bare-ass.


      • Kate January 7, 2016 / 12:26 pm

        It’s marvellous, isn’t it? I’ve heard “in the bollocky” on one or two occasions (from a NZ relative admittedly) and adored the amount of bollocks I came across in Ireland, but I do like “stark bollocky naked” very much. I think those extra bollocks add much more oomph to being starkers.


      • John Cowan January 7, 2016 / 3:24 pm

        I first read this as “Daniel O’Connell”.


  7. Stephen Turner January 7, 2016 / 9:20 am

    “Bollocking” is not uncommon in informal English. I would say that it’s mostly lost its association with testicles and is thus less rude than “bollocks”: I wouldn’t expect it to come as high up the severity chart when considered as a verb.


    • Stan Carey January 7, 2016 / 9:31 am

      That sounds about right, Stephen, and it’s probably why Piers Morgan reacted as he did upon being told that bollocking wasn’t appropriate in the context.


    • Stephen Turner January 7, 2016 / 10:43 am

      I meant to write “in informal British English”, of course.


  8. sesquiotic January 7, 2016 / 2:45 pm

    Not sure if anyone got a bollocking for this advert, but it’s a true classic of the bollocks:


  9. jonmwilson January 15, 2016 / 5:32 am

    And not one mention of the Sex Pistols album from 1977, “Never Mind the Bollocks”…?


      • jonmwilson January 15, 2016 / 11:58 am

        Good point… I noticed that after commenting 🙂


  10. Last Hussar January 27, 2016 / 8:13 pm

    Bollock is an Anglo-saxon word meaning sphere or ball, hence the use.


  11. mollymooly March 17, 2016 / 1:45 am

    In my mental lexicon, “bollock” [plural “bollocks”] means “testicle”, whereas “bollox” [plural “bolloxes”] means “scrotum”. Given that ghits for “itchy bollocks” far exceed those for “itchy bollox”, it seems that not many people share my distinction.

    Newstalk FM’s “Off the Ball” sports talk radio show starts at 7pm with greatest-hit snippets, of which one includes the phrase “he will in his bollocks” and another “they don’t give a shite”. The show is aimed at a laddish young-male demographic, but nevertheless the relatively early hour suggests the terms are only slightly risqué in Ireland.


    • Stan Carey March 17, 2016 / 8:56 am

      That’s interesting about ‘Off the Ball’. I’ve listened to it, but not often. I don’t think the two words in question would get a free pass on morning radio – from listeners if not the studio – but I could be wrong.


  12. D'Mari Davis October 22, 2018 / 10:02 am

    I remember writing in a letter to my English fiance, back in the 80s, that something had gotten all bollixed up. He responded, in shock, that I should be sure never to use such awful language in front of his mother. It was never a swear word in my American family. I guess we just didn’t know its origins back then.


    • Stan Carey October 22, 2018 / 10:10 am

      It does seem a good deal milder in US usage. Luckily you used it in private with your fiancé before dropping it casually at Sunday dinner in Britain…


  13. Jstraw September 9, 2021 / 6:16 pm

    Interesting… I’m American, my mother immigrated from Great Britain in the 1960s. She used the phrase every so often, I adopted it and until I saw this article I thought it meant “ball lickers” … I explained to my friends in school it was like getting tea-bagged with somebody’s nutsack….balls on your chin, etc. Leave it to us Yanks to screw up the Queen’s English, right?


    • Stan Carey September 10, 2021 / 11:59 am

      I have no objections to the Queen’s English being screwed up (or innovated, to put a positive slant on it). And congratulations: that is the rudest folk etymology I’ve ever heard.


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